West Turizm Ä°stanbul




(500 000 BC – AD 330)


500 000 BC

♦ Palaeolithic Age. Earliest human (Homoerectus) presence in Yarimburgaz  (Istanbul), Karain (Antalya), Beldibi (Antalya) Caves, primitive stone tools  used. Hunting, fishing, collecting edible plants from the nature.

11 000 BC

♦ Mesolithic Age in Anatolia, a transition from Palaeolithic to Neolithic. 

7250 – 6500 BC

♦ Neolithic Age. First settlements at Hallan Cemi, Nevali Cori, Cayonu,  Hacilar, Catalhoyuk.
Catalhoyuk the largest settlement in the near east.
♦ Early agriculture (wheat, barley, lentils). Religious shrines and figurines,  pottery, mural paintings. Burials inside

5400 - 3250 BC

♦ Chalcolithic Age. Use of Copper. Dark ages. Burials in cemeteries

5000 BC

♦ Alacahoyuk, Alisar, Canhasan and Beycesultan rise as main settlements

3000 BC

♦ Anatolia enters Bronze Age and reaches a high level of civilization.
First  settlement at Troy. City-States, fortresses and feudal Lords began to    appear. Bronze extensively used to make weapons and ornamentation.

2500 - 2000 BC

♦ Hatti people, and Assyrian trading colonies and posts (Kanesh) are established in Anatolia. 
♦ Strong commercial ties between Anatolia and Mesopotamia.
♦ Cuneiform tablets are the earliest written records found yet in Anatolia.

1750 BC

♦ Hittite kingdom founded by Anitta. Hattusas was built.

1650 BC

♦ Hittite Empire founded

1620  - 1590 BC

♦ Reign of Mursilis I. Hittite Kingdom becomes the leading power in the Mid-  east.

1520 BC

♦ First law codes made by Telepinus in Hittite State.

1450 BC

♦ Tudhaliyas I founded a new dynasty that creates Hittite Empire.

1380 – 1345 BC

♦ Reign of Suppiluliumas I, the Hittites' greatest ruler. Suppiluliumas destroys the Kingdom of Mitanni and extends
his borders into northern  Syria.

1275 BC

♦ Reign of Muwattalli. War at Kadesh between Hittites and Egyptians, and  earliest known international treaty signed and Ramses withdraws from  Syria.

1200 - 1100 BC

♦ Anatolian civilizations destroyed by outside invaders called Sea Peoples.  Trojan war, fall and sack of Troy by
Achaeans. Hattusas destroyed. Hittite  Empire collapses and organized as small city states at Carchemish, Karatepe, Zincirli, Aslantepe. Vacuum of power in Anatolia.

1112 BC

♦ Assyrian king Tiglath Pleser defeats the coalition of 23 local princes in the  land of Nairi in Urartu region.

1100 – 1000 BC

♦ Beginning of Greek migration to Aegean coast of Anatolia. Miletus the first  Greek colony and city.

900 – 800 BC

♦ Urartu civilization in the eastern Anatolia. Phrygian becomes main power  in central Anatolia. Lydian, Lycian and

860 – 840 BC

♦ Reign of Aramu, first known king of Urartu.

840 – 830 BC

♦ Reign of Sarduri II, who makes Tushpa capital of Urartian Kingdom. First  written records by Urartu.

800 BC

♦ Water channel of Shamram was built by Urartians for irrigation.

756 BC

♦ Cyzicus founded by Milesian colonists

750 BC

♦ Miletus active in establishing colonies along the Aegean and Black Sea  coasts.

735 BC

♦ Siege of Tushpa, capital of Urartu, by Tiglath Pleser III.

717 BC

♦Assyria captures Carchemish and other Neo-Hittite states and gains  control in Anatolia. Phrygia takes over in Western Anatolia.

700 – 650 BC

♦ Phrygians and cities of Western Anatolia destroyed by Cimmerians. Lydia  raises main power in Western Anatolia.
Homer born at Smyrna. First coin  in the World introduced by Lydians at Sardis. Greek colonists from Ionia  occupy the Black Sea coast.

685 BC

♦ Chalcedon, the ancient town across the Bosphorus from Byzantium was  founded by Greeks.

680 – 648 BC

♦ Reign of Gyges, first king of Mermnad dynasty of Lydia. Ionian cities under  heavy attack by him. Cimmerian
invasion of Anatolia.

677 BC

♦ Selymbria on the Propontis coast was captured by Greeks.

660 BC

♦ Byzantium founded by Megarians. Miletus continues to establish more  colonies.

652 BC

♦ Gyges dies fighting Cimmerians, his son Ardys becomes king of Lydia.

604 BC

♦ Peace treaty between Lydians and Mileasians.

600 BC

♦ Ionia leading area in Greek science and Philosophy. Tyrants rule Anatolia.

590 BC

♦ Urartu conquered by Medes

585 BC

♦ Solar Eclipse happened during the war between Persians and Lydians.  Thales of Miletus had predicted the solar

560 BC

♦ Croesus becomes ruler of Lydia.

560 – 546 BC

♦Croesus ruler of Lydia. Croesus defeated by Cyrus of Persia. Persian  domination established all over Anatolia and Greece.

512 BC

♦ Byzantium captured by Darius.

499 BC

♦ Ionian cities encouraged by Athens revolt against Persian rule. Sardis  burned down.

498 BC

♦ Sardis captured from Persians and burned by Ionian cities.

494 BC

♦ Persians crush Ionian revolt at Battle of Lade, and burns down Miletus.

479 BC

♦Persians defeated again at battles of Plataea and Mycale. Ionian cities  temporarily regain freedom.

478 BC

♦ Delian League welcomes Ionian cities.

467 BC

♦ Persians defeated once more by Athenians at Eurymedon.

413 BC

♦ Battle between Athenians and Ionian cities.

410 BC

♦ Alcibiades defeats the Peloponnesians at the naval battle of Cyzicus.

405 BC

♦ Athenians defeated by Peloponnesians at the battle of Aegospotami.

401 BC

♦ The ten thousand under Xenophon begins expedition through Anatolia  into Persia.

395 BC

♦ Sardis besieged by Agesilaus.

394 BC

♦ Battle of Cnidus

386 BC

♦ Anatolia under Persian rule again by King's peace.

363 BC

♦ The Satraps' Revolt

337 BC

♦ Kingdom of Pontus founded

334 BC

♦ Alexander crosses Dardanelles   into Asia Minor. Persians defeated at  Granicus battle. Ionian cities liberated from Persian yoke.  Miletus and  Halicarnassus besieged by Alexander.

333 BC

♦ Alexander's conquests in Cilicia, decisive defeat of Persians at Issus battle.

323 BC

♦ Alexander the Great dies at Babylon. Perdiccas becomes regent.

321 BC

♦ Perdiccas killed in Egypt, Antipater becomes regent.  Antigonus chief  commander of the Army.

319 BC

♦ Antipater dies, Polyperchon replaces him as regent. 

318 BC

♦ Antigonus takes over Asia Minor.

315 – 311 BC

♦ First war between Diadochi, Lysimachus, Ptolemy, Cassander, Seleucus  vs. Antigonus.

311 BC

♦ Peace treaty between the Diadochi. 
♦ Seleucus was excluded from the treaty.

310 – 309 BC

♦Roxane and Alexander, the wife and son of Alexander the Great were  murdered by Cassander

308 BC

♦ Seleucus I gains the title of King.

306 BC

♦ Antigonus and his son Demetrius proclaim kings.

305 BC

♦ Ptolemy, Lysimachus and Cassander take the titles King.

304 BC

♦ Agathocles proclaims himself king.

301 BC

♦Antigonus defeated and killed at the battle of Ipsus. Lysimachus rules  Anatolia.

300 BC

♦ Seleucid dynasty gains control in Syria. Antioch on the Orontes founded.

295 BC

♦ Seleucid occupies Cilicia. Lysimachus conquers Ionia.

287 BC

♦ Lysimachus and Pyrrhus split Macedonia.

281 BC

♦ Seleucus I defeated Lysimachus at the battle of Corupedium. Lysimachus  dies at the battlefield.

280 BC

♦ Seleucus I was murdered by Ptolemy Ceravnos at Lysimacheia. Bithynian,  Cappadocian and Armenian kingdoms declare independence from Seleucid  kingdom.

278 BC

♦ Gauls invade Anatolia and settle in Central Anatolia.

277 BC

♦ Antigonus Gonatos defeats the Celts at Lysimacheia.

275 BC

♦ Gauls defeated by Seleucid Emperor Antiochus I.

263 – 241 BC

♦ Rise of Pergamum kingdom under Attalid dynasty.

230 BC

♦ Rome and Pergamum becomes strong allies. Gauls crushed by Pergamum.

189 BC

♦ Antiochus defeated by Romans at Magnesia.

188 BC

♦ Treaty of Apameia puts an end to Seleucid rule in Anatolia.

133 BC

♦ Attalus III the last king of Pergamum dies and bequests his kingdom to  Rome.

130 BC

♦ Roman province of Asia Minor established. Pergamum becomes capital.
♦ Aristonicus defeated.

120 – 63 BC

♦ Reign of Mithridates VI of Pontus

101 BC

♦ Cilicia (southern Anatolia) becomes Roman province

88 BC

♦ Mithridates the king of Pontus destroys the cities and massacres number  of Roman citizens.

84 BC

♦ Lycia was incorporated by Romans into province of Asia

83 BC

♦ End of Seleucid kingdom. Mediterranean coast becomes centre of Piracy.

81 BC

♦ Pontus was annexed into Roman province

80 BC

♦ Commagene kingdom in the remote east Anatolia founded, after the death  of Antiochus, monumental tomb built on the top of Mt. Nemrut.

78 BC

♦ Pompeii the general campaigns against Pirates in Pamphylia, Cilicia and Isauria.

74 BC

♦ Nicomedes IV the king of Bithynia dies and leaves his kingdom to Rome.

67 BC

♦ Cilicia becomes a Roman province.

66 BC

♦ After defeated by Romans, Mithridates kills himself. Romans control much  of Anatolia

53 BC

♦ Crassus was defeated by Parthians at Harran.

41 BC

♦ Anthony and Cleopatra come together at Tarsus.

40 BC

♦ Anthony and Cleopatra get married at Antioch

32 BC

♦ Rome declares war on Cleopatra's Egypt.

31 BC

♦ Cleopatra and Antony defeated by Octavian at the battle of Actium.

30 BC

♦ Octavius (Augustus) visits Antioch. Cleopatra and Antony commit suicide.  End of Hellenistic period and beginning of Roman Imperial Period.

29 BC

♦ Ephesus replaces Pergamum as capital of the Roman Province of Asia.



AD 40 - 56

♦ St. Paul's missionary journeys. First Christian community at Antioch.

AD 72

♦ Roman Empire annexes Commagene Kingdom.

AD 117

♦ Trajan dies at Selinus, Cilicia, Hadrian becomes Imperator

AD 124

♦ Hadrian's visits in Asia Minor.

AD 129

♦ Galen the famous physician at Pergamum

AD 165

♦ Plaque in Asia Minor

AD 215

♦ Caracalla at Antioch

AD 229-260

♦ Romans and Sassanids fight a series of wars over eastern Anatolia.

AD 260

♦ Emperor Valerian is defeated and captured by the Sassanids at Edessa.
♦ The Persians take the control of territories as far as Caesarea in Cappadocia.

AD 301

♦ Armenia converted to Christianity

AD 303

♦ Christians severely persecuted at Nicomedia.

AD 312

♦ Constantine becomes sole emperor of the Roman Empire after defeating  his rival Maxentius at the battle of
Milvian Bridge near Rome.

AD 313

♦ Christianity tolerated religion in Byzantine Empire. Byzantium renamed  Constantinople.

AD 324-330

♦ Constantinople becomes capital of Eastern Roman empire.



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