CHRONOLOGY OF BYZANTINE EMPIRE (324-1453 A.D.)

CHRONOLOGY OF BYZANTINE EMPIRE (324-1453 A.D.)

 

CHRONOLOGY OF BYZANTINE EMPIRE (324-1453 A.D.)

 

324

♦ Constantine I becomes sole Roman Emperor
♦ A period of civil war concludes with Constantine I as sole emperor of the  eastern and western Roman Empire. He commences construction of New  Rome (Constantinople) on the site of the old Greek city of Byzantium. 
♦ Constantine instigates a series of legislative changes that favour
 Christians within the Roman Empire.

325

♦ The Council of Nicaea
♦ Constantine is not prepared to tolerate divisions within the Christian
 Church, a threat to Roman stability that he regards as formidable as any
 war or battle. An ecumenical council of church leaders is convened at
 Nicaea to debate Arianism; a popular religious doctrine, which holds that
 Jesus Christ (the Son), is inferior to God (the Father).

11 May 330

♦ Constantinople formally dedicated as Roman Capital 
♦ The year 330 is often treated as a convenient starting point for referring  to the Roman Empire in the East as the Byzantine Empire or  Byzantium.

395

♦ The Roman Empire divides in half, with the Eastern Roman Empire
 based in Constantinople and the Western Roman Empire based in

 Rome/Ravenna.

413

♦ Construction of Constantinople’s triple walls begin 
 
Although commonly known as the Theodosia Walls after Theodosius II,
 the reigning emperor), the walls were actually built on the orders of
 Anthemius, the Empire’s Prefect of the East, to counter an immediate
 hreat from the Huns.

476

♦ The Western Empire Falls: The Eastern Empire survives and now is
labeled as the Byzantine Empire.

526

♦ Justinian's reign begins. He reconquers parts of the fallen Western
 Empire (Africa and Italy, Spain). He codifies the Previous Roman Laws  into one document. Constantinople is the most glorious city in Europe,  with 500,000 inhabitants. The Hagia Sofia is constructed. Justinian is the  last emperor to use the title Caesar.

568

♦ Lombards invade Italy, eventually taking Northern Italy from the
 Byzantines.

610

♦ Heraclius becomes emperor. Temporary possession of Mesopotamia. The
 theme system is installed. The Empire's language changes to Greek.

 Eventual Lost of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt to Muslims.

690

 ♦ Loss of North Africa to Muslims.

693

♦ Muslims attack Constantinople.

717-718

♦ Large Muslim force besieges Constantinople by land and sea. The attack  is held off.

721

♦ Regains control of Asia Minor from the Muslims

726

♦ Emperor Leo III bans the use of Icons.

800

♦ Charlemagne, king of the Franks, is crowned Emperor of the Romans by  Pope Leo III in Rome. For the first time in 300 years, there is an emperor  of the East and an emperor of the West.

843

♦ The use of Icons is restored.

917

♦ Bulgars under Simon overrun Thrace.

924

♦ Bulgars unsuccessfully attack Constantinople unsuccessfully.

941

♦ Prince Igor of Kiev attacks Bithynia and later attacks Constantinople

♦ The Byzantines destroys the Russian fleet.

976

♦ Basil II becomes Emperor.

992

♦ Venetians granted extensive trading rights in the Byzantine Empire

995

♦ Basil II reconquers Syria from the Muslims.

996

♦ Basil II reconquers Greece from Bulgars.

1014

♦ Basil II destroys the Bulgar army, earning the epithet Bulgaroktonos  (Bulgar Slayer).

1055

♦ Loss of southern Italy to the Normans.

1071

♦ Defeat at Manzikert to the Seljuk Turks. Permanent loss of most of Asia  Minor.

1075

♦ Loss of Syria to Muslims.

1054

♦ The Great Schism: The Latin Roman Church and the Greek Orthodox  Church excommunicate each other.

1087

♦ Byzantines defeated in Thrace.

1095

♦ Alexius appeals to Urban II at Council of Piacenza for help against the  Turks. The First Crusade is proclaimed at Council of Clermont.

1096

♦ Crusaders arrive at Constantinople. The Crusaders are successful, but  eventually withdraw from cooperation with the Byzantines.

1121

♦ Re-conquest of southwestern Asia Minor.

1179

♦ Byzantine Army defeated by the Sultanate of Rum at Myriokephalon
 Hopes of regaining Asia Minor are lost.

1202

♦ Fourth Crusade is assembled at Venice.

1204

♦ Fourth Crusade captures Constantinople. The Latin Empire of
 Constantinople is formed as well as many Byzantine successor states.
 The capture of Constantinople in 1204 was a blow from which the
 Byzantines never fully recovered.

1261

♦ The successor state of Nicaea recaptures Constantinople and restores
 the Byzantine Empire.

1453

♦ Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans. End of the Byzantine Empire.

 

 


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